Ottoman Warfare 1914-1918 (Mehmet Fatih Baş)

Ottoman Warfare 1914-1918 (Mehmet Fatih Baş)

When the Ottoman Empire entered the war, the potential Middle Eastern theater of operations was regarded as a mere sideshow. Widely viewed as an inferior fighting force, the Ottoman Army was simply tasked with drawing on itself as many enemy forces as possible; thus relieiving Germany on the Western Front, where the decisive battles would eventually take place. Throughout the war, the Ottoman Army, not only drew on itself a considerable British and Russian force, it also helped its allies by sending expeditionary corps to the campaigns in Eastern Europe. The army sustained itself throughout the war and by November 1918, though heavily battered, it was still fighting on.
This article was firstly published in ““International Encyclopedia of the First World War ( ) ” and it is put our website with the consent of website’s editor and author.

The Battle Of Musallebeh – 14 July 1918 – A Failed Turkish German Joint Attack On  The WW1 Palestine Front (Tuncay Yılmazer)

The Battle Of Musallebeh – 14 July 1918 – A Failed Turkish German Joint Attack On The WW1 Palestine Front (Tuncay Yılmazer)

Despite serious logistic problems in the Palestine Front, Liman von Sanders Pasha, the German General commanding the Yıldırım Army Group since February 1918, launched an attack on the Musallebeh and Abu Tellul posts, north of Jericho, to expel the British,Anzac and Indian forces from the Jordan Valley. Why did he plan such “an unnecessary, futile attack”, as the official Turkish military history put it later? In attempting to answer this question, this article examines the Battle of Musallebeh, one of the rare Ottoman attacks in the Palestine Campaign and the reasons of its eventual failure. (T.Y.)

Who are your heroes of Gallipoli? An exclusive interview with John Gillam, The author of “Turkish Charlie Ryan” (with Yvonne Fletcher ) ( Tuncay Yılmazer )

Who are your heroes of Gallipoli? An exclusive interview with John Gillam, The author of “Turkish Charlie Ryan” (with Yvonne Fletcher ) ( Tuncay Yılmazer )

As a succesfull military surgeon of Gazi Osman Pasha’s Ottoman Army at Plevne against Russians and years later AIF’s General Surgeon in Gallipoli Campaign. —-‘When we first read the research of Charles Ryan’s exploits and the influence he had at the May 24 Armistice we were touched by his vision and leadership.   He knew there would only be peace when both sides shared respect and a mutual understanding of each other.   He chose in spectacular fashion to be the one that bridged the gap of warring parties that day.   Turkish Historian Haluk Oral says “he helped to establish the indestructible foundation of Turkish-Australian friendship amidst the trenches of war’
We present an exclusive interview with John Gillam , The author of ‘Turkish Charlie Ryan’ with Yvonne Fletcher. We add TED Mersin College Social Science Teacher Celal Yıldırım’s foreword.     (T.Y)

On the Occasion of 100. anniversary of the end of the Ottoman Rule in Jerusalem, An Exclusive Interview with Roberto Mazza, The Author of “Jerusalem: From the Ottomans to the British” (I.B.Taurus 2009)

Did really exist a Pax-Ottomana in the last period of Ottoman administration in the Jerusalem? How was the mood of Jerusalem inhabitants when the Allenby’s campaign began on 31 October 1917? Did German and Austrian churches celebrate the fall of Jerusalem due to religious reasons as some Turkish historians stated? The Crusaders terminology and the British propaganda . Why did zionists despise of Jerusalem Jews? Had not been Cemal Pasa’s opressing policy toward Arabs , the result would have been different? What would be repercussions of Trump’s decision over Jerusalem?  We present an exclusive interview with Roberto Mazza, a historian from Limerick University,Ireland and the Author of “Jerusalem , From Ottomans To British”(IB Taurus 2009) We hope his study will be translated into Turkish . Turkish version of this interview will be aired later. (T.Y)

A Review from the other Side of the Hill: Churchill and the Dardanelles by Christopher Bell (Yusuf Ali Özkan)

Churchill’s career as the First Lord of the Admiralty had ended much earlier than the Allied evacuation of the Peninsula by the collapse of Prime Minister Asquith’s government in May 1915. Since that time Churchill has been always in the centre of the debates of Gallipoli because he, — in the eyes of some authors, politicians, and journalists — as a careless adventurist who ignored his naval advisers and colleagues, has been seen sole responsible for the disaster. Professor Christopher Bell’s (Dalhousie University in Halifax/Canada) recent, balanced, and well-analysed study of Churchill and the Dardanelles, however, has evidently changed the ‘conventional wisdom’ about the Churchill’s role in the Dardanelles by clearly stating that he was neither a hero nor a devil. (Y.A.Ö.)

A Notebook-A Distant Memory From Gallipoli – Turkish Officers attending Anzac Day in New Zealand ( Haluk Oral)

During the Korean War, Turkey, New Zealand and Australia were all on the same side. In Korea, the troops from all these countries in 1953 participated in a procession together for the Anzac Day ceremonies to which General Sırrı Acar was also invited. In 1954, the government of New Zealand applied to its Turkish counterpart to request for inviting a military committee from Turkey to Anzac Day ceremonies. When the request was approved, a committee was assigned from the Turkish garrison in Korea. The committee of four officers included Major Halim Kural, Captain Orhan Aydemir and Captain Şinasi Çapar as well as their commander, a colonel whose name we will also hear later: Cemal Madanoğlu. The news about the arrival of the committee appearing on tens of journal aroused profound interest in New Zealand. The Christchurch Press on its April 23, 1954 issue, for instance, reports that as soon as the committee has arrived they participated in two consecutive functions during which senior soldiers from New Zealand who fought in Gallipoli campaign raced each other to shake hands with them.  (H.O)

General Patton – Gallipoli A Staff Study (Lt.Gen. Ben Hodges)

George Patton is famous among military historians and modern Soldiers for his aggressive, audacious, relentless, and hard-nosed approach to warfighting.  He is also famous for his study of military history and his extensive library which was full of books with his thoughtful annotations and assessments of Leaders and Generals and campaigns throughout history.  These annotations in his own books, in his own hand-writing, give insight into how he thought, and reveal his sense that he may actually have lived and fought in previous wars throughout history.Lt.Gen Ben Hodges is one of the senior US officer in Europe. He was the head of Allied Land Command (LANDCOM), of which HQ is at Izmir/Turkey, between 2012-2014. He prepared “General Patton’s Gallipoli Staff Study” with Gallipoli Campaign researcher Prof.Haluk Oral. The study published in Turkish by İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları in February 2017

The Bloody Handkerchief (Ömer Arslan)

This is a moving real story which has carried Gallipoli’s emotions from the past to today. In Gallipoli Campaign bloody days , Turkish soldiers Ali and Yusuf from 64.Regiment attended a fierce battle with Otago Battalion on Baby 700 area on 2-3 May 1915. After the fighting, Ali found an handkerchief on which it was written “A gift from mother to his son George for his 28th birthday 2 April 1915” This handkerchief belonged to George Tomas Uren , New Zealand Brigade , Otago Battalion. After weeks, Yusuf was seriosly wounded in the 64.Regiment assault on Conkbayırı positions on 7 August 1915. His comrade, best friend Ali tried to stop bleeding with this handkerchief. Just before dying, Yusuf asked Ali that took this bloody handkerchief to his wife. The Bloody Handkerchief has remained as a remembrance in Ali & Yusuf’s grandsons , so far. Turkish Gallipoli Campaign researcher Ömer Arslan wrote this moving news for GeliboluyuAnlamak website. He found Ali’s and Yusuf’s grandsons and took photograph the bloody handkerchief. His research continues on this subject.  

To Halil İnalcık (Ali Yaycıoğlu)

The great Ottoman historian Professor Halil İnalcık passed away on July 25 at the age of 100. İnalcık wrote groundbreaking books and articles on a vast range of themes: social responses to the Tanzimat reforms, peasant economies, methods of Ottoman conquest, the Khanate of Crimea, capital formation in the urban economy, the Ottoman legal order, and Indian Ocean trade. In his prolific career, İnalcık reshaped the field of Ottoman history. There is no doubt that with Köprülü, Wittek, and Barkan, İnalcık was one of the founding fathers of modern Ottoman studies. In the scope and impact of his work, İnalcık is the field’s most influential scholar. (A.Y.)

Gallipoli Campaign: A Symbolic Battleground (Özgür Öztürk)

This article argues that there is no static approach to the meaning of Gallipoli Campaign in Turkey. There is a social dimension that shapes the understanding of the battle continually. The understanding of the battle changes when a rival political group champions on the historiography of the battle. In Turkey, political groups, namely Kemalists and Islamists, contend over the meaning of the battle. This rivalry makes the history of Gallipoli Campaign as a symbolic battle ground between the groups. Since the Turks do not constitute a single political group, Gallipoli Campaign is what the groups make of it. In Turkey, Gallipoli Campaign is a historical heritage that is always under construction. (Ö.Ö.)